Characteristics and methods of surface metallization modification of non-metallic mineral materials

Non-metallic minerals, powders, molded article for surface treatment of metal plating, a metal plating film on its surface, and electrical brush plating surface treatment technology combined with the product, is a metal surface of the composite non-metallic mineral material Apply new developments.

1. Why should the surface metallization of non-metallic mineral materials be carried out?

The metal layer is brushed on the surface of non-metallic mineral materials mainly for the purpose of electrical conduction, wear resistance, corrosion protection and decoration. Surface metallization of non-metallic minerals or products is mainly used in non-metallic mineral deep processing products such as silicate products, architectural decoration materials, arts and crafts decoration, ceramic materials, minerals (or mineral fibers)/metal composites.

Surface metallized non-metallic (mineral) material can obtain better mechanical strength and wear resistance than single mineral material, not only corrosion resistance but also light weight, good electrical conductivity, improved thermal stability, good decorativeness, not only a large number Saving precious scarce materials can also reduce costs and extend service life. It is a promising non-metallic mineral/metal composite.

2. Characteristics of surface metallization of non-metallic mineral materials

The surface metallization of non-metallic mineral materials mainly refers to the comprehensive use of various physical, physical, chemical and chemical means to coat the surface of the material with a metallized layer to prepare for the next electroplating process. Because the non-metallic mineral material itself is largely non-conductive, surface metallization is the key to electroplating.

(1) Classification of surface metallization of non-metallic mineral materials

The surface metallization of non-metallic mineral materials is divided into dry and wet methods. Dry method is to transfer solid metal to the surface of non-metallic materials; wet method is to transfer liquid metal or metal ions to the surface of non-metallic materials.

In principle, the coating material is solid and liquid. Solid materials are powders, wires and metal blocks; liquid materials have mechanically mixed suspensions, as well as compounds.

From the process point of view, there are spray, coating, plating, burning, evaporation, and sputtering. When using evaporation, sputtering, sintering, etc., the size of the workpiece is limited by the size of the device, so it is mostly used for small parts, and the methods of spraying glue, electroless plating, etc. are not limited by the size of the workpiece, and are mostly used for large parts.

From the point of view of the equipment, it is mostly a fixed type of equipment. The dry method requires a heat source or a power source, and the wet method does not.

(2) Surface metallization purposes of non-metallic mineral materials

For subsequent brush plating or electroplating, the surface metallization layer is only required to conduct well, so the metallization layer is very thin and only a few microns thick. However, the quality of the metallized thin layer is high, and in addition to good electrical conductivity, it must be well bonded to the substrate, the surface layer is dense, and the surface roughness value is small.

(3) The bonding mechanism between metallized layer and non-metallic mineral material

The bonding mechanism between the metallization layer and the substrate is mainly mechanical bonding. Depending on the metallization process, it is also accompanied by a certain diffusion, solid solution or chemical action. The bonding strength of the non-metallic mineral brush plating layer is much smaller than the bonding strength of the metal plating layer. Therefore, in the preparation of the metallized film layer, special attention should be paid to measures to improve the bonding strength from various process steps.

3. Non-metallic mineral material brush plating treatment method

(1) silver by sintering infiltration

A mixture of silver oxide and some other additives is applied to the surface of the non-metallic material, and after high temperature treatment, the silver oxide is decomposed into a metal silver layer to stay on the surface of the material to achieve surface metallization.

(2) Metal powder coating (or wire coating)

The metal powder or wire is heated and melted by gas or electric energy, and the molten metal is sprayed on the surface of the non-metal material with a high-pressure gas to form a metal layer.

(3) Vacuum coating

Vacuum coating is also known as vacuum evaporation. Since the metal is easily evaporated under vacuum conditions, the metal is heated in a vacuum to evaporate, vaporize, and then deposited on the surface of the non-metallic mineral material to form a metal film. This method can also be used to evaporate silicones to organically (hydrophobic) the mineral surface.

(4) Sputter coating

Sputter coating, like vacuum coating, is a physical vapor deposition. Under a certain degree of vacuum, a high voltage is applied from the anode, and the metal particles on the cathode are bombarded with the charged particles generated by the high voltage, and the bombarded metal ions are sputtered onto the surface of the non-metallic mineral material to form a film.

(5) spraying conductive adhesive

The metal powder, the binder and the solvent are mixed into a viscous liquid, sprayed or brushed on the surface of the non-metallic mineral material, and solidified to form a surface conductive film. Graphite powder can also be used as required instead of metal powder.

(6) Plating

The use of conventional electroplating methods and electroplating baths to electroplate non-metallic mineral materials is a means of surface metallization of fine particulate minerals.

(7) Electroless plating

First, a surface catalytic film layer (conductive layer) is chemically prepared on the surface of the non-metallic mineral material, and then placed in a solution containing the plated metal ions, and a metal plating layer is obtained by a redox reaction. According to the electroless plating process (roughening, sensitization, activation) and materials, the electroless plating methods are classified as follows:

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