Behind the rise of China's auto parts industry


In the “2013 list of the top 100 auto parts suppliers in the world” published by a U.S. agency, the only Chinese company listed on the list is CITIC Decker Wheel Manufacturing Co., Ltd., which ranks 92nd. There are 28, 24, and 20 companies in Japan, the United States, and Germany in the Top 100 list. Among the top 10 companies, there are three in Germany and Japan, and the others are the United States, Canada, France, and South Korea. One, the top three companies are Bosch, Denso, Continental Group, the three leading products are the core components of electronic appliances, chassis components, energy-saving and new energy vehicles. Reading this list, the status of China's auto parts in the world auto parts industry is evident. On the 2013 China Parts Top 100 published by a Chinese media, local parts can be seen from another perspective: Most of the top 10 companies are tires, glass and other parts companies (excluding engines), indicating that China’s local zero The relative advantage of parts companies is still traditional automotive parts.

With the continuous expansion of China's auto industry, the lagging development of parts and components has brought more and more significant impact on the development of the auto industry. The government, industry, and scholars also have a high degree of consensus on the revitalization of parts and components industry. However, the policy has been limited, and the industry has become helpless. Scholars see that the overall level of parts and components industry is slow. At present, the overall structure and status quo of the parts and components industry are as follows:

The characteristics of industries with foreign investment. There are roughly three types of domestic parts and components companies classified by capital attributes. One is a Sino-foreign joint venture. The background of its establishment is mainly industrial policy factors such as Shanghai UMC, Kelimei, etc. One is a foreign-owned enterprise, such as Tianjin Denso Motor. , Freescale, etc. Most of the companies in the world's top 100 list of parts and components are located in China, either in joint ventures or wholly-owned enterprises. The third category is Chinese-funded enterprises (hereinafter referred to as local enterprises). Local enterprises are divided into private and private enterprises. Mixed ownership (mainly the formation of state-owned enterprises restructuring), mixed ownership of enterprises and vehicle companies have capital ties, the volume is relatively large.

Local companies are at the low end of the industry chain. In terms of the number of companies (above scale), local companies account for more than 70%; from the perspective of supporting turnover, local companies account for about 30%, and the main factor is nearly 75% of the entire vehicle (excluding commercial vehicles and crossover passenger vehicles in the total amount) The market share of 75% is joint ventures. The market for passenger cars with more than RMB 150,000 is mainly multinational brand products, while the suppliers of vehicle joint ventures are mainly joint ventures or wholly foreign-owned ones, and 30% of foreign-funded enterprises rely on foreign sources. High-tech and high-value-added components gain high income and high profits. Local parts and components companies are mostly in the low-end and middle-end of the value chain. They include brake systems, transmission systems, steering systems, air-conditioning systems, and electronic control systems. The share of core components is limited, so some people use rural areas and cities to compare local and foreign spare parts enterprises. Although not appropriate, they also basically reflect the status quo of the industry.

Facing the severe challenges of sustainable development. Most of the local companies have gradually developed from the traditional truck parts and components, experienced the transformation of the car or the full range of models, eliminated a group of companies, were merged with some companies, and some of the traditional parts suppliers formed a certain scale. A certain comparative advantage. However, a considerable number of companies still lack the ability to grow. Under the strong influence of foreign-funded parts enterprises, the products of vehicle companies have been continuously upgraded, and the supply conditions for spare parts have become more and more restrictive. As a result, the profitability of local companies has become more limited and sustainable. The ability to develop continues to decline. Some companies that have capital ties to vehicle companies may be slightly better. A considerable number of independent suppliers are even using other businesses to raise spare parts. Some private enterprises simply leave without a win. Nowadays, in the process of the development of energy-saving and new-energy automobiles in the automotive industry, the parts and components industry is facing the pressure of further transformation and upgrading. Can it keep up with the pace of industrial transformation and upgrading? It is placed in front of the Chinese auto parts industry, especially local companies. Life and death.